Preliminary (Sec. 78-79)

“This Part shall apply to matters relating to fresh start, insolvency and bankruptcy of
individuals and partnership firms where the amount of the default is not less than one
thousand rupees:
Provided that the Central Government may, by notification, specify the minimum
amount of default of higher value which shall not be more than one lakh rupees.” VL Note : –

“In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, –
(1) “Adjudicating Authority” means the Debt Recovery Tribunal constituted under subsection (1) of section 3 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institution Act,
1993 (51 of 1993);
(2) “associate” of the debtor means –
(a) a person who belongs to the immediate family of the debtor; (b) a person who is a relative of the debtor or a relative of the spouse of the debtor;
(c) a person who is in partnership with the debtor;
(d) a person who is a spouse or a relative of any person with whom the debtor is in
(e) a person who is employer of the debtor or employee of the debtor;
(f) a person who is a trustee of a trust in which the beneficiaries of the trust include
a debtor, or the terms of the trust confer a power on the trustee which may be exercised
for the benefit of the debtor; and
(g) a company, where the debtor or the debtor along with his associates, own more
than fifty per cent. of the share capital of the company or control the appointment of the
board of directors of the company.
Explanation. – For the purposes of this sub-section, “relative”, with reference to any
person, means anyone who is related to another, if-
(i) they are members of a Hindu Undivided Family;
(ii) one person is related to the other in such manner as may be prescribed;
(3) “bankrupt” means –
(a) a debtor who has been adjudged as bankrupt by a bankruptcy order under
section 126;
(b) each of the partners of a firm, where a bankruptcy order under section 126 has
been made against a firm; or
(c) any person adjudged as an undischarged insolvent;
(4) “bankruptcy” means the state of being bankrupt;
(5) “bankruptcy debt”, in relation to a bankrupt, means –
(a) any debt owed by him as on the bankruptcy commencement date;
(b) any debt for which he may become liable after bankruptcy commencement date
but before his discharge by reason of any transaction entered into before the bankruptcy
commencement date; and
(c) any interest which is a part of the debt under section 171;
(6) “bankruptcy commencement date” means the date on which a bankruptcy order is
passed by the Adjudicating Authority under section 126;
(7) “bankruptcy order” means an order passed by an Adjudicating Authority under
section 126;
(8) “bankruptcy process” means a process against a debtor under Chapters IV and V of this part;
(9) “bankruptcy trustee” means the insolvency professional appointed as a trustee for
the estate of the bankrupt under section 125;
(10) “Chapter” means a chapter under this Part;
(11) “committee of creditors” means a committee constituted under section 134;
(12) “debtor” includes a judgment-debtor;
(13) “discharge order” means an order passed by the Adjudicating Authority
discharging the debtor under sections 92, 119 and section 138, as the case may be;
(14) “excluded assets” for the purposes of this part includes –
(a) unencumbered tools, books, vehicles and other equipment as are necessary to
the debtor or bankrupt for his personal use or for the purpose of his employment,
business or vocation,
(b) unencumbered furniture, household equipment and provisions as are necessary
for satisfying the basic domestic needs of the bankrupt and his immediate family;
(c) any unencumbered personal ornaments of such value, as may be prescribed, of
the debtor or his immediate family which cannot be parted with, in accordance with
religious usage;
(d) any unencumbered life insurance policy or pension plan taken in the name of
debtor or his immediate family; and
(e) an unencumbered single dwelling unit owned by the debtor of such value as
may be prescribed;
(15) “excluded debt” means –
(a) liability to pay fine imposed by a court or tribunal;
(b)liability to pay damages for negligence, nuisance or breach of a statutory,
contractual or other legal obligation;
(c) liability to pay maintenance to any person under any law for the time
being in force;
(d) liability in relation to a student loan;
(e) any other debt as may be prescribed;
(16) “firm” means a body of individuals carrying on business in partnership whether
or not registered under section 59 of the Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932);
(17) “immediate family” of the debtor means his spouse, dependent children and
dependent parents; (18) “partnership debt” means a debt for which all the partners in a firm are jointly
(19) “qualifying debt” means amount due, which includes interest or any other sum
due in respect of the amounts owed under any contract, by the debtor for a liquidated sum
either immediately or at certain future time and does not include –
(a) an excluded debt;
(b) a debt to the extent it is secured; and
(c) any debt which has been incurred three months prior to the date of the
application for fresh start process;
(20) “repayment plan” means a plan prepared by the debtor in consultation with the
resolution professional under section 105 containing a proposal to the committee of creditors
for restructuring of his debts or affairs;
(21) “resolution professional” means an insolvency professional appointed under
this part as a resolution professional for conducting the fresh start process or insolvency
resolution process;
(22) “undischarged bankrupt” means a bankrupt who has not received a discharge order
under section 138″ VL Note : –